Open pit mining and transportation

First, the loading work

In the loading work, the ore is usually picked up from the explosive pile or the solid by the loading equipment and loaded into the transport container.

The loading work is the central part of the open-pit mining production process. The mining process and its production capacity largely determine the open mining mode, technical appearance, mining strength and final economic effects. Generally speaking, the actual production capacity of the mining is basically the production capacity of the mine.

1, mining equipment

Open pit mining equipment mainly includes: excavators, bucket shovel, hydraulic shovel and tire type front loading machine.

Commonly used equipment for open pit mining is excavators, which are divided into single bucket and multi bucket. The single bucket excavator has a mechanical shovel and a bucket shovel. The mechanical shovel bucket or scoop bucket is mounted on the shovel or spoon. The shovel rod is telescopic and pushed to excavate the mine and rock. The most widely used; the bucket shovel bucket Hanging on the wire rope, relying on its own weight and wire rope to excavate, mostly used for back stacking. Multi-excavator excavators are generally only used in soft ore.

2. The following safety regulations should be observed during operation.

(1) When working, it is not allowed to shovel a large piece of ore that exceeds the capacity of the bucket. It is not allowed to use a bucket to break through large ore rocks. It is not allowed to use a bucket to pick up pumice and umbrellas on the working surface;

(2) It is forbidden to cross the bucket from above the cab of the vehicle, and keep the bucket steady when unloading;

If it is found that there is a danger of slumping or pebbles falling on the slope of the step, it must be quickly driven out of the dangerous area. After taking measures to prevent the danger, it is necessary to continue the operation;

(3) The excavator cable shall not be crushed, impacted, immersed and bent less than 90°; it is not allowed to use the shovel tooth to pick up the cable.

3. Mining face parameters

The parameters of the open pit mining face mainly include the step height, the length of the mining zone, the width of the mining zone and the width of the working plate. Whether the parameters of the working face are reasonable or not will not only affect the loading and unloading work of the excavator, but also affect the smooth progress of other production processes in the open pit mine.

(1) step height

The height of the step is limited by various factors, such as excavator working parameters, ore and burial conditions, perforated blasting work requirements, mining strength and transportation conditions. The height of the step is large, and the number of steps is reduced, which is conducive to reducing the cost, but the stability of the open-air edge is reduced. Therefore, it is necessary to comprehensively consider economic, technical and safety factors to determine a reasonable step height.

1) Step height when loading a flat car

The flat car, ie the transport equipment, works at the same level as the excavator. From the perspective of ensuring safety, when excavating loose soft rock without pre-crushing, the step height should not be greater than the maximum excavation height of the excavator; when excavating the hard rock, the step height should be able to make the explosion height after blasting , not greater than the maximum excavation height of the excavator; in order to increase the full scale of the excavator, the step height of the soft ore and the height of the hard rock shall not be lower than 2/3 of the height of the excavator's pushing shaft.

2) Step height when loading the car

The loading vehicle is the upper flat plate of the step where the excavator is located. In order to load the rock into the upper flat transport equipment, the step height should be determined according to the maximum unloading height and maximum unloading radius of the excavator.

(2) Length of mining area

The length of the mining area, also known as the length of the working line of the excavator, refers to the length of the part where the working step is classified as an excavator. The minimum length of the mining area should at least ensure that the excavator has a blasting volume of 5-10 days or more. Practice has proved that the motor transport mining area not less than the length of 150-200m; railway transport of not less than 3 times (about 400m) train length.

(3) Mining belt width

The width of the mining belt is the width of the excavation. The mining belt is too narrow, the excavator moves frequently, the working time is reduced, the production capacity is reduced, and the track wear is increased. The mining belt is too wide, the excavator excavation conditions are deteriorated, the edge of the mining belt is full, the residual ore is increased, and the cleaning work is performed. The increased amount will also reduce the production capacity of the excavator.

(4) Working flat width

The work flat is the site for mining and transportation operations. Maintaining a certain working plate width is a necessary condition for ensuring the normal stripping work between the upper and lower steps.

The working plate width depends on the stack width, the transport equipment specifications, the configuration of the equipment and power lines, and the amount of return required. The width necessary to extract mining transport equipment and normal operations only by arrangement is called the minimum working flat width.

Second, transportation work and safety requirements

For open-pit mining mines, the total capital investment of mine transportation accounts for about 60% of the total infrastructure costs, and transportation costs account for more than 50% of the total cost of mines. In particular, transportation work has become an open-pit mine that restricts the weak links in mine production. Reasonable selection of transportation types, proper organization and strengthening of transportation management are necessary conditions for ensuring normal production of open-pit mines and achieving good economic benefits.

The main modes of transportation are as follows:

(1) Dump truck transportation;

(2) Railway transportation;

(3) Belt conveyor transport;

(4) Slope lifting transport;

(5) Joint transportation.

Safety requirements for open pit mining operations:

1, car transportation

(1) The driver must strictly implement the traffic rules and technical operating procedures promulgated by the Ministry of Communications, and it is strictly forbidden to drive without a license.

(2) When the slope of the road leading to the loading and unloading site is greater than 10%, it is forbidden to reverse the vehicle.

(3) The unloading car must be driven after the car is fully stabilized.

(4) When the excavator is loaded with rock (rock), the driver's body should not be exposed outside the cab.

(5) The speed of the car in the stope shall not exceed 20 km/h, and the medium shall not exceed the medium speed.

(6) It is strictly forbidden to take passengers in the dump truck compartment.

(7) Rain and snow weather roads are muddy. When the road surface is slippery, anti-skid measures should be taken and decelerated. The distance between front and rear vehicles should be greater than 40 meters. It is forbidden to turn the steering wheel, brake, overtake and tow other vehicles while driving. When it is necessary to be dragged, effective security measures should be taken and directed by someone. Heavy fog or road icing should stop running.

(8) On the corners of the hillside fill, the fill sections with large slopes and the high embankments, guardrails, blockers and mounds should be placed on the outside of the road.

(9) The unloading platform should have sufficient shunting width. The unloading point must have reliable parking facilities, the height of which should not be less than two-fifths of the diameter of the tire. The parking facilities must pass the technical inspection and be used.

(10) It is forbidden to start the vehicle by rolling, and it is strictly forbidden to slide in the downhill driving. When parking on the slope, the parking brake should be used.

2, human transportation

(1) The cart personnel should always look at the front. When the cart is on the single track to confirm that there is no vehicle on the opposite side, the cart must be pushed forward to avoid a trailer accident.

(2) When one person is only allowed to push one car and the same direction, the distance between the two cars shall not be less than 10 meters.

(3) Since the slippery car is controlled by the cart person at any time, it is forbidden to release the car. The slope design of the self-slip line should conform to the design specifications.

(4) Except for the workers of the mining truck, it is forbidden for anyone to take the mine car, and it is also forbidden to use the mine car without brakes or brakes.

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